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Short course content

The short course content that met the criteria for inclusion in the final round were allocated to one of five ’themes’. Regional differences in what the panellists considered important to include, has resulted in the variation in content seen below.

In the final round, to categorise the importance of each item within each theme, panellists were asked to indicate for each item whether it was important to include in a short course on postoperative care (yes or no). A star (*) indicates that 100% of panellists in the region thought the item was important. The remainder were arranged in order of importance based on panellist views.

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Theme: Patient and Health system considerations before surgery

African region 

Americas region 

South West Asian & Western Pacific regions 

* Delays to reaching surgical care (e.g. transport, cost) and their effect on complications after surgery

* Age related concerns that may affect care after surgery (e.g. children, the elderly)

* Age related concerns that may affect care after surgery (e.g. children, the elderly)

* How prognosis and risks after surgery might inform whether surgery is appropriate or not

* How prognosis and risks after surgery might inform whether surgery is appropriate or not

* Short term health issues (e.g. severity and nature of acute illness)

* Care standards and availability of treatment guidelines

* Care standards and availability of treatment guidelines

Care standards and availability of treatment guidelines

Short term health issues (e.g. severity and nature of acute illness)

Staffing levels, wellbeing and resilience, and their effect on complications after surgery

 

Age related concerns that may affect care after surgery (e.g. children, the elderly)

Individualised risk assessment (based on risk calculators, e.g. P-POSSUM)

 

Levels of care after surgery, and where they are offered (e.g. health centre, district general hospital, specialist centre)

 

 

Staffing levels, wellbeing and resilience, and their effect on complications after surgery

 

 

Theme: Anaesthesia and surgical care during surgery

A star (*) indicates that 100% of panellists in the region thought the item was important. The remainder were arranged in order of importance based on panellist views.

 African region

Americas region 

South West Asian & Western Pacific regions 

* Anaesthetic complications during surgery (e.g. airway complications, hypoxia, anaphylaxis, complications relating to regional anaesthesia)

* Anaesthetic complications during surgery (e.g. airway complications, hypoxia, anaphylaxis, complications relating to regional anaesthesia)

* Anaesthetic complications during surgery (e.g. airway complications, hypoxia, anaphylaxis, complications relating to regional anaesthesia)

* Effect of surgical complications during surgery (e.g. major blood loss, soiling, retained items) on care after surgery

* Effect of surgical complications during surgery (e.g. major blood loss, soiling, retained items) on care after surgery

* Effect of surgical complications during surgery (e.g. major blood loss, soiling, retained items) on care after surgery

* Effect of anaesthetic technique (e.g. GA, regional, sedation, local) on care after surgery

Effect of anaesthetic technique (e.g. GA, regional, sedation, local) on care after surgery

* Effect of anaesthetic technique (e.g. GA, regional, sedation, local) on care after surgery

* Availability of anaesthesia drugs, oxygen, and equipment

Effect of surgical technique (e.g. open or laparoscopic) on care after surgery

* Severity of surgery (e.g. minor, major, damage-control)

Urgency of surgery

Type of surgery (e.g. obstetric, general, neuro, multi-stage)

* Type of surgery (e.g. obstetric, general, neuro, multi-stage)

Effect of surgical technique (e.g. open or laparoscopic) on care after surgery

Severity of surgery (e.g. minor, major, damage-control)

* Urgency of surgery

Types of anaesthesia providers (e.g. physician or non-physician providers)

Urgency of surgery

Effect of surgical technique (e.g. open or laparoscopic) on care after surgery

Severity of surgery (e.g. minor, major, damage-control)

Availability of anaesthesia drugs, oxygen, and equipment

Availability of anaesthesia drugs, oxygen, and equipment

Type of surgery (e.g. obstetric, general, neuro, multi-stage)

 

 

Indications for surgery

 

 

Availability of surgical instruments and supplies (e.g. prostheses)

 

 

Types of operating surgical provider (e.g. specialist or non-specialist providers)

 

 

Theme: Common complications after surgery

A star (*) indicates that 100% of panellists in the region thought the item was important. The remainder were arranged in order of importance based on panellist views.

African region 

 Americas region

South West Asian & Western Pacific regions 

* Blood related (e.g. post-operative bleeding, coagulopathy)

* Blood related (e.g. post-operative bleeding, coagulopathy)

* Blood related (e.g. post-operative bleeding, coagulopathy)

* Cardiovascular (e.g. MI, arrhythmia, pulmonary oedema)

Cardiovascular (e.g. MI, arrhythmia, pulmonary oedema)

* Cardiovascular (e.g. MI, arrhythmia, pulmonary oedema)

* Respiratory (e.g. hypoxia, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism)

Respiratory (e.g. hypoxia, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism)

* Respiratory (e.g. hypoxia, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism)

* Management of nausea and vomiting

Management of nausea and vomiting

* Management of nausea and vomiting

* Complications encountered only in particular specialties (e.g. apnoea in paediatrics, pre-eclampsia in obstetrics, and so on)

Neuro (e.g. cognitive dysfunction, delirium)

* Neuro (e.g. cognitive dysfunction, delirium)

* Altered biochemistry (e.g. electrolyte disturbances)

Complications encountered only in particular specialties (e.g. apnoea in paediatrics, pre-eclampsia in obstetrics, and so on)

* Altered biochemistry (e.g. electrolyte disturbances)

* Management of pain (including in patients with substance abuse)

Management of pain (including in patients with substance abuse)

* Management of pain (including in patients with substance abuse)

* Infection (e.g. surgical site, sepsis)

Renal (e.g. acute kidney injury, urinary retention, urinary tract infection)

* Renal (e.g. acute kidney injury, urinary retention, urinary tract infection)

* Renal (e.g. acute kidney injury, urinary retention, urinary tract infection)

Infection (e.g. surgical site, sepsis)

* Infection (e.g. surgical site, sepsis)

Complications of ICU stay (e.g. difficulty weaning off ventilator, critical illness myopathy and neuropathy)

 

* Gastrointestinal (e.g. GI bleed, ileus, blood sugar disturbance)

Neuro (e.g. cognitive dysfunction, delirium)

 

Complications of ICU stay (e.g. difficulty weaning off ventilator, critical illness myopathy and neuropathy)

gastrointestinal (e.g. GI bleed, ileus, blood sugar disturbance)

 

Complications encountered only in particular specialties (e.g. apnoea in paediatrics, pre-eclampsia in obstetrics, and so on)

Effects of COVID-19 Infection on the surgical patient and role of vaccine

 

Effects of COVID-19 Infection on the surgical patient and role of vaccine

 Theme: Monitoring of the patient after surgery

A star (*) indicates that 100% of panellists in the region thought the item was important. The remainder were arranged in order of importance based on panellist views.

 African region

Americas region 

South West Asian & Western Pacific regions 

* Hand-over and communication between health professionals

Basic monitoring equipment and their use (ECG, pulse oximetry, etc)

* Hand-over and communication between health professionals

* Early warning scores based on patient observations

Early warning scores based on patient observations

* Early warning scores based on patient observations

* Basic monitoring equipment and their use (ECG, pulse oximetry, etc)

 

* Common diagnostic testing and their role in monitoring the patient (e.g. Hb, renal function, blood glucose)

Common diagnostic testing and their role in monitoring the patient (e.g. Hb, renal function, blood glucose)

 

* Basic monitoring equipment and their use (ECG, pulse oximetry, etc)

Effect of nursing availability and level of training on care after surgery

 

* Role of physiotherapy (e.g. early mobilisation, chest physio)

Location of care (e.g. recovery area, ward, critical care)

 

 

Role of physiotherapy (e.g. early mobilisation, chest physio)

 

 

Critical care outreach services (e.g. ICU nurse follow-up)

 

 

 Theme: “Ability to rescue” the patient with surgical complications

A star (*) indicates that 100% of panellists in the region thought the item was important. The remainder were arranged in order of importance based on panellist views

 African region

Americas region 

 South West Asian & Western Pacific regions

* Considerations on when to refer and transfer to higher centres for continued care

* Capacity of ward staff to manage resuscitation and cardiac arrest (e.g. training, availability of defibrillator and other equipment)

* Capacity of ward staff to manage resuscitation and cardiac arrest (e.g. training, availability of defibrillator and other equipment)

* Capacity to manage acute pain (e.g. pharmacological, regional, availability of medications in hospital or with patient if having to buy it themselves)

Capacity to manage acute pain (e.g. pharmacological, regional, availability of medications in hospital or with patient if having to buy it themselves)

* Capacity to manage acute pain (e.g. pharmacological, regional, availability of medications in hospital or with patient if having to buy it themselves)

Capacity of ward staff to manage resuscitation and cardiac arrest (e.g. training, availability of defibrillator and other equipment)

 

* Considerations on when to refer and transfer to higher centres for continued care

Availability and prioritisation of resources for higher level of care (e.g. ventilators, dialysis)

 

* Considerations on unplanned return to theatre

 

 

Ability to escalate level of care (e.g. proximity to nursing station, transfer to higher level care)

 

 

Availability and prioritisation of resources for higher level of care (e.g. ventilators, dialysis)

 

 

Availability and considerations on when to use blood bank and/or blood products

Prioritising the broad content themes.

Panellists were asked to rank from “Most important” to “Least important” the broad content themes for the short course. 

Here, the lists for each region represent the order of importance according to the panellists, with the most important at the top and least important at the bottom.

 African region

Americas region 

South West Asian & Western Pacific regions 

Common complications after surgery Anaesthesia and surgical care during surgery Monitoring of the patient after surgery
Ability to rescue the patient with surgical complications Common complications after surgery Anaesthesia and surgical care during surgery
Monitoring of the patient after surgery Ability to rescue the patient with surgical complications Common complications after surgery
Anaesthesia and surgical care during surgery Monitoring of the patient after surgery Ability to rescue the patient with surgical complications
Patient and health system considerations before surgery Patient and health system considerations before surgery Patient and health system considerations before surgery

Want to see other results?

Click here for teaching methods or participants and facilitators